Zakah Of Fitr
All praise is due to Allah and may Allah raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad, his virtuous and blessed kin and honoured companions.
The Zakah of Fitr is due on every Muslim who is alive part of Ramadan and part of Shawwal (the month after Ramadan.) The due Zakah for each is a “sa^” or four times the fill of a pair of average-sized hands cupped together of the most common staple food of one’s area. It is an obligation upon the Muslim to pay the due Zakah for one and one’s Muslim dependents if on the day of the Feast of Fitr (^Id-ul-Fitr) and the night after it he has enough to meet his debts, clothing, lodging, and sustenance, and the sustenance of those whom he must support.
The man must pay the Zakah of Fitr for his wife, non-pubescent children, slaves, and poor Muslim parents. He may not pay for his pubescent children or solvent parents without their permission. It is permissible to pay the Zakah of Fitr any time during Ramadan, even on the first night. However, it is recommended to pay it during the day of the Feast, and before the ^Id prayer, because this mends the hearts of the poor people before the prayer. It is prohibited to delay paying the Zakah of Fitr until after the sunset of the day of the Feast without an excuse.
Recipients Of Zakah
For all types of Zakah, the intention is obligatory upon setting one’s Zakah portion aside. Zakah must be paid to the Muslims among the eight categories of people deserving of Zakah as mentioned explicitly in the Qur’an (at-Tawbah, 61):
إنما الصدقات للفقراء والمساكين والعاملين عليها والمؤلفة قلوبهم وفي الرقاب والغارمين وفي سبيل الله وابن السبيل
- Those (who are poor) who earn less than half their basic needs (al-fuqara’);
- Those (who are poor) who earn half but less than what meets all their basic needs (al-masakin);
- The Zakah workers who are assigned by the caliph (al-^amilun ^alayha);
- The new converts to Islam whose hearts are to be reconciled (al-mu’allafatu qulubuhum);
- The slaves who are short in satisfying their contract for purchasing their freedom from their owners (ar-riqab);
- Those who are unable to pay their debts (al-gharimun);
- The volunteer fighters (fi sabilillah);
- The travellers who do not have enough to enable them to reach their destination (ibn-us-sabil).